Co-written by Sherin Lajevardi and Mateo Pitkin

You are taking an exam when you suddenly stumble upon a problem that you have no idea how to solve. You sit and stare at the paper as your mind races through all the possible formulas you have learned throughout the quarter until you finally remember the exact one you need. You may not know it, but your working memory played a key role in your ability to successfully retrieve the formula needed to solve this problem. Working memory is an essential part of our everyday lives, allowing us to recall information and…


Humans exhibit the highest levels of self-awareness and pragmatism of any species on earth– that’s no secret. It’s clear that without such unparalleled mental faculties, we wouldn’t be where we are today. But I would also argue that humans are eternally flawed.

I’m not exactly sure what that flaw is, however. It’s not ignorance, laziness, or lack of foresight, although in some cases it’s one or more of these things, but it almost seems as if we humans consistently fail to do what’s in our best interest. I don’t mean this in the sacrificial sense where we prioritize the well-being…


Founder Leandro Castelluccio and Martin Machin share their vision on Naxon Labs

Naxon Labs, a company working with portable EEG technology and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs), recently launched Naxon Explorer, an intuitive platform for EEG analysis and processing that aims to overcome the current barriers to neurotechnology.

Equipped with elegant visualization tools, automatic artifact detection features, and pattern recognition machine learning algorithm, the Explorer strips away all the complexities of conventional tools like EEG lab and Python’s MNE libraries to render a simple, cheap, and easy to use platform for the user.

A Quick Glance at the Naxon Explorer

But First Let’s Rewind a Bit. Who is Naxon Labs? And What is Their Story?

After earning a masters degree in cognitive neuroscience from…


Morality is such a hard quality to define and yet one of the cornerstones of human civilization. Whether we look at religious passages in the Bible or stories from Aesop’s Fables, lessons on morality are ubiquitous in our society, and moral values are imparted upon as at a tender age. Rather than relying on explicit rules like “Don’t steal” or “Don’t be greedy”, although those do exist in formal texts like the “Ten Commandments”, we tend to use narratives and stories to serve as examples for moral virtues. …


My first exposure to the phenomenon of synesthesia was in high school; I was hanging out with my friends after school and one of Kanye’s old albums was blasting in the car.

One of my friend then proceeded to make an offhanded comment about how he wished he could “see” the song we were listening to, not see a live performance per se but “see” the notes and rhythms in the music. I first dismissed it as him just being a smartass– trying to make one of those profound statements that seem more thought provoking than they prove to be.


100 Billion Neurons. Trillions of Synapses. All in One Brain.

What’s normal when it comes to the brain? The short answer: it’s hard to say.

Although every human brain shares a common physical architecture, each individual brain has its own unique wiring of neurons and synapses shaped by our thoughts, feelings and behavior. With the sheer number of possible combinations between the neurons and the synapses, it is no surprise that no two brains are alike.

But to what extent are they different? Even if we are looking at the same object or thinking about the same thing, is my…


Using Digital Biomarkers as a Predictor of Mental Health

Mental Health and the Status Quo

Anyone who has taken a basic psychology course has probably heard of the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders). It’s basically a big book of every mental and neuropsychiatric disorder that psychiatrists use to diagnose and treat patients. A quick glance at the DSM, however, will reveal that a majority of the symptoms of these disorders are self-reported, and often times, the lines are so blurry that you could convince yourself that you have at least one if not several of the disorders listed!

The truth is, we know very little about the cause of mental illnesses and…


I have friends that produce music, dance effortlessly, and create paintings that are hauntingly realistic, and unfortunately, none of that comes easily to me. I’m just not that good at art as I would like to be. Perhaps partly due to my lack of artistic abilities and partly due to my sense of curiosity, I have always wondered what it is about artists that allow them to render such beautiful works of art, be it a vivid and beautiful painting or the production of a soundtrack that evokes goosebumps. Is it innate? Is it the conscious attention to detail? …


“Ay, when are you getting your own car bro?” my friend Nick shouted as he cruised past me in his red Mustang. I didn’t have time for Nick’s taunts today; I had just left school and was sprinting down Miramonte Avenue, hoping to avoid missing the bus.

The daily bus ride was merely a connector between home and school; I possessed no excitement about taking a bus filled with strangers. With music blaring through my ears, I avoided the unknown faces and sought solace in my solitude, oblivious of my surroundings.

As I approached the bus stop, I saw an…


2014- Rio De Janeiro

Juliano Pinto, a 29 year-old paraplegic, made the first kick of the FIFA world cup using a brain-controlled robotic exoskeleton. The brain child of a team of 150 neuroscientists led by Dr. Miguel Nicolelis, the mind-controlled robotic suit served as validation for the remarkable progress made so far in the field of neurotechnology while also giving a glimpse into future applications and developments.

But first, what is neurotechnology?

Simply put, neurotechnology = neuroscience + technology. It is the interdisciplinary field involving a whole range of disciplines including: computer science, neuroscience, psychology, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, etc..

Regardless of what background you are coming from, there…

Kushaal Rao

Neurotech Enthusiast

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store